Southeast Asia (Brunei, Burma [Myanmar], Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) From the tropical rain and monsoon forests of the northwest, the area extends through the savannah and the dry tropical forests of the Indochina peninsula, returning to the tropical rain and monsoon forests of the islands bordering the South China Sea.
Anthropod Borne Diseases
Arthropod-borne diseases are an important cause of morbidity throughout the area. Malaria and filariasis are endemic in many parts of the rural areas of all the countries or areas&8212;except for malaria in Brunei and Singapore, where only imported cases normally occur. In Brunei, the common arthropod-borne diseases such as filariasis, dengue, hemorrhagic fever, and Japanese encephalitis are nonendemic. Natural foci of plague have been reported in Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), and Vietnam. Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and dengue hemorrhagic fever can occur in epidemics in both urban and rural areas. Mite-borne typhus has been reported in deforested areas in most countries.
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
Foodborne and waterborne diseases are common. Cholera and other watery diarrheas, amebic and bacillary dysentery, typhoid fever, and hepatitis A and E can occur in all countries in the area. Schistosomiasis is endemic in the southern Philippines and in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) and occurs in small foci in southern Laos and Cambodia. Among helminthic infections, fasciolopsiasis (giant intestinal fluke) can be acquired in most countries in the areas; clonorchiasis (oriental liver fluke) in the Indochina peninsula; opisthorchiasis (cat liver fluke) in the Indochina peninsula, the Philippines, and Thailand; and paragonimiasis in most countries. Melioidosis can occur sporadically throughout the area. The only remaining focus of poliovirus transmission is in the Mekong Delta area of Cambodia and southern Vietnam. Poliovirus transmission has probably been interrupted in Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma (Myanmar), the Philippines, and Thailand.
Hepatitis B is highly endemic. Trachoma exists in Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, and Vietnam. Rabies is a significant problem throughout this region.
Other hazards include snake bites and leeches.