North Africa: (Algeria, Canary Islands [Spain], Egypt, Libya, Madeira [Portugal], Morocco, Tunisia, and Western Sahara) is characterized by a generally fertile coastal area and a desert hinterland with oases that are often foci of infections.
Anthropod Borne Diseases
Arthropod-borne diseases are unlikely to be a major problem to the traveler, although dengue fever, filariasis (focally in the Nile Delta), leishmaniasis, malaria, relapsing fever, Rift Valley fever, sand fly fever, typhus, and West Nile fever do occur in some areas.
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
Foodborne and waterborne diseases are endemic; the dysenteries and other diarrheal diseases are particularly common. Hepatitis A occurs throughout the area, and hepatitis E is endemic in some regions. Typhoid fever is common in some areas. Schistosomiasis is prevalent both in the Nile Delta area in Egypt and in the Nile valley; it occurs focally elsewhere in the area. Alimentary helminthic infections, brucellosis, and giardiasis are common. Echinococcosis (hydatid disease) can occur. Sporadic cases of cholera occur.
Poliomyelitis eradication efforts in northern Africa have been very successful and wild virus transmission in most of the area may have been interrupted. However, Egypt continues to demonstrate ongoing transmission of wild-type polio virus. Trachoma and rabies are hazards in certain areas.
Other hazards: Snakes and scorpions are a hazard in certain areas.