East Asia: China, Hong Kong SAR (China), Japan, Macao SAR (China), Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan
The area includes the high mountain complexes, the desert and the steppes of the west, and the various forest zones of the east, down to the subtropical forests of the southeast.
Anthropod Borne Diseases
Among the arthropod-borne diseases, malaria occurs in China and the Korean peninsula. Although reduced in distribution and prevalence, bancroftian and brugian filariasis are still reported in southern China. A resurgence of visceral leishmaniasis is occurring in China. Cutaneous leishmaniasis has been recently reported from Xinjiang, Uygur Autonomous Region. Plague can be found in China and Mongolia. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (rodent-borne Korean hemorrhagic fever) is endemic except in Mongolia, and epidemics of dengue fever and Japanese encephalitis can occur in some countries. Mite-borne or scrub typhus can be found in scrub areas in southern China, certain river valleys in Japan, and in South Korea.
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
Foodborne and waterborne diseases such as diarrheal diseases and hepatitis A are common in most countries. Hepatitis E is prevalent in western China. The present endemic area of schistosomiasis is in the central Chang Jiang (Yangtze) River basin in China; active foci no longer occur in Japan. Clonorchiasis (oriental liver fluke) and paragonimiasis (oriental lung fluke) are reported in China, including the Macao SAR, and South Korea. Fasciolopsiasis (giant intestinal fluke) occurs in China, as does brucellosis. Cholera can occur in some countries in this area. Poliomyelitis eradication activities have rapidly reduced poliovirus transmission in East Asia. Reliable surveillance data indicate that poliovirus transmission has been interrupted in China since 1994.
Hepatitis B is highly endemic. Trachoma and leptospirosis occur in China. Outbreaks of meningococcal disease (serogroups A and B) occur regularly in Mongolia. Rabies is endemic in China and Korea.