Western Europe (Andorra, Austria, Azores [Portugal], Belgium, Denmark [including Greenland and Faroe Islands], Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, the Holy See, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, San Marino, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom [including Channel Islands and the Isle of Man]) The area encompassed by these countries extends from the broadleaf forests and the plains of the west to the boreal and mixed forests of Scandinavia.
The incidence of communicable diseases in most countries is such that they are unlikely to prove a hazard to international travelers greater than that found in their own country. There are, of course, health risks, but in most areas very few precautions are required.
Anthropod Borne Diseases
Of the arthropod-borne diseases. Tickborne encephalitis, for which a vaccine exists, and Lyme disease can occur throughout forested areas where the vector ticks are found infective.
Leishmania and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections have been reported from France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain.
Rabies is endemic in wild animals (particularly foxes) in rural areas of northern Europe.
The extreme cold in winter is a climatic hazard in parts of northern Europe.