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Brazil Travel Health

Brazil flag

Brazil Health

Population: 184,101,109 (July 2004 est.)
Capital: Brasilia

The following report outlines the key health issues and concerns that travelers to Brazil should be aware of before vacation or general business travel, based on the reporting from the CDC Yellowbook.

Yellow Fever Vaccination Requirements :
If traveling from an infected area and > 9 months of age, unless the traveler has a waiver stating that immunization is contraindicated on medical grounds. Also required for travelers arriving from:

Africa: Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Sudan.

Americas: Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, and Peru.

Brazil recommends vaccination for travelers destined for endemic zones including rural areas in the states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins, and certain areas of Bahia, Minas Gerais, Parana, Piauí, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo.

Malaria Area of Risk :
States of Acre, Rondônia, Amapá, Amazonas, Roraima, and Tocantins. Parts of states of Maranhaõ (western part), Mato Grosso (northern part), and Pará (except Belem City). There is also transmission in urban areas, including large cities such as Porto Velho, Boa Vista, Macapa, Manaus, Santarem, and Maraba.
Malaria Chloroquine Resistance :
CDC Yellow Book Region Overview :
Region Introduction
Tropical South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela) covers the narrow coastal strip on the Pacific Ocean; the high Andean range with numerous peaks 5,000 to 7,000 meters (16,604 to 22,966 feet) high; and the tropical rain forests of the Amazon basin, bordered to the north and south by savannah zones and dry tropical forest or scrub.

Anthropod Borne Diseases
Arthropod-borne diseases are an important cause of ill health in rural areas. Malaria occurs in all 10 countries or areas, as do Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis), and cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. There has been an increase of the latter in Brazil and Paraguay. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in northeast Brazil, with foci in other parts of Brazil; less frequent in Colombia and Venezuela; rare in Bolivia and Paraguay; and unknown in Peru. Endemic onchocerciasis occurs in isolated foci in rural areas in Ecuador, Venezuela, and northern Brazil. Bancroftian filariasis is endemic in parts of Brazil, Guyana, and Suriname. Plague has been reported in natural foci in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Among the arthropod-borne viral diseases, jungle yellow fever can be found in forest areas in all countries except Paraguay and areas east of the Andes. Much of Brazil being forested area, lies with the yellow fever endemic zone; coastal areas do not. Epidemics of viral encephalitis and dengue fever occur in some countries in this area. Bartonellosis, or Oroya fever (a sand fly-borne disease), occurs in arid river valleys on the western slopes of the Andes up to 3,000 meters (9,842 feet). Louse-borne typhus is often found in mountain areas of Colombia and Peru.

Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
Foodborne and waterborne diseases are common and include amebiasis, diarrheal diseases, helminthic infections, and hepatitis A. Schistosomiasis is found in Brazil, Suriname, and north-central Venezuela. Paragonimiasis (oriental lung fluke) has been reported from Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Brucellosis is common and echinococcosis (hydatid disease) occurs, particularly in Peru. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela all reported autochthonous cases of cholera in 1996.

Other Diseases
Other diseases include rodent-borne Arenavirus hemorrhagic fever in Bolivia and Venezuela, and hepatitis B and D (delta hepatitis), which are highly endemic in the Amazon Basin. Rabies has been reported from many of the countries in this area. Outbreaks of meningococcal disease (serotype B and C) have been reported.

Other Hazards
Other hazards: Snakes and leeches can be a hazard in some areas.

View health issues for other countries:  

The NCBuy Travel Center Country Health reporting data is for general information purposes only, and should not be viewed as an official source of health advice.

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