Temperate South America: Argentina, Chile, Easter Island, Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and Sandwich Islands, and Uruguay. The mainland ranges from the Mediterranean-like climatic area of the western coastal strip over the Andes divide to the steppes and desert of Patagonia in the south and the prairies of the northeast.
Anthropod Borne Diseases
Arthropod-borne diseases are relatively unimportant except for the occurrence of Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis). Outbreaks of malaria occur in northwestern Argentina, and cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported from the northeastern part of the country. In 2002, authochthonous cases of dengue fever occurred for the first time in Chile on Easter Island.
Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases
Foodborne and waterborne diseasesOf the foodborne and waterborne diseases, gastroenteritis (mainly salmonellosis) is relatively common in Argentina, especially in suburban areas and among children <5 years of age. Some cases of cholera were reported in Argentina in 1996. Typhoid fever is not very common in Argentina, but hepatitis A and intestinal parasitosis are widespread (the latter especially in the coastal region). Taeniasis (tapeworm), typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, and echinococcosis (hydatid disease) are reported from other countries.
Anthrax is an occupational hazard in the three mainland countries. Animal rabies is endemic in Argentina and Chile. Epidemic meningococcal disease (serotype B) has been reported in Chile. Rodent-borne hantavirus pulmonary syndrome has been identified in the north-central and southwestern regions of Argentina and in Chile.