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Backgrounds: Bhutan Religious Freedom
The law provides for freedom of religion; however, the Government limited this right in practice. The Drukpa discipline of the Kagyupa school, a branch of Mahayana Buddhism, is the state religion, although many citizens also practice the Ningmapa branch of Buddhism.
There was no change in the status of respect for religious freedom during the period covered by this report.
Societal pressure for conformity with Drukpa Kagyupa norms was prevalent.
There are no formal diplomatic relations between the United States and Bhutan; however, the U.S. Government discussed religious freedom issues with the Government informally as part of its overall policy to promote human rights.
Section I. Religious Demography
The country has a total area of 18,146 square miles. Population figures vary greatly, but the Government estimated a population of approximately 700,000. Approximately two-thirds to three-quarters of the declared population practice either Drukpa Kagyupa or Ningmapa Buddhism. The Drukpa discipline is practiced predominantly in the western and central parts of the country, although there are adherents in other regions. Government-supported monasteries also practice the Kagyupa sect of Buddhism. Ethnic Ngalops, descendants of Tibetan immigrants, comprise the majority of the population in the western and central parts of the country. The Ngalops predominate in Government and the civil service, and their cultural norms and dress have been declared by the monarchy to be the standard for all citizens.
The Ningmapa school of Mahayana Buddhism is practiced predominantly in the eastern part of the country, although there are adherents in other parts of the country. Most of those living in the east are ethnic Sarchops, the descendants of those thought to be the country's original inhabitants. Several Sarchops held high positions in the Government, the National Assembly, and the court system.
The royal family practices a combination of Ningmapa and Kagyupa Buddhism. There is a tradition of respect among many citizens for the teachings of an animist and shamanistic faith called Bon, which revolves around the worship of nature, and predates Buddhism. Bon priests still can be found in the country, but very few citizens adhere to this faith. Bon rituals sometimes are included in Buddhist festivals.
Christians, both Catholics and Protestants, are present in very small numbers throughout the country. There was reportedly only one building used for Christian worship in the south of the country, the only location where the concentration of Christians was sufficiently large to sustain a church building. Elsewhere, Christian families and individuals practiced their religion at home. There are no Christian missionaries operating in the country.
Section II. Status of Religious Freedom
Legal/Policy FrameworkThe law provides for freedom of religion; however, the Government limited this right in practice. The Drukpa discipline of the Kagyupa school, a branch of Mahayana Buddhism, is the state religion. Proselytization is illegal, and Bhutanese NGOs operating outside the country claimed the Government prohibited conversions. Dissidents also contended that Buddhist texts were the only printed religious materials permitted to enter the country. The Government vehemently denied these claims and asserted that its citizens are free to practice any religion openly.
The Monastic Body (or Monk Body) comprised of 3,500 monks, was financed by an annual government grant and was the sole arbiter on religious matters. The body also played an advisory role to the National Assembly, the Royal Advisory Council, and the King, who consistently deferred to its pronouncements on almost all religious matters and many decisions affecting the state. Major Buddhist and Hindu religious holidays are also state holidays.
Questions of family law, such as inheritance, marriage, divorce, child custody, and adoption, traditionally are resolved according to a citizen's religion: Buddhist tradition for the majority of the population and Hindu tradition for the ethnic Nepalese. The Government subsidized monasteries and shrines of the Drukpa discipline and provided aid to approximately one-third of the Kingdom's 12,000 monks. By statute 10 seats in the 150-seat National Assembly and 2 seats on the 11-member Royal Advisory Council are reserved for monks of the Drukpa discipline.
Religious communities must secure government licenses before constructing new places of worship. Reports by ethnic Nepalese citizens suggested that this process was biased toward Buddhist temples. The Government provided financial assistance for the construction of Drukpa Kagyupa and Ningmapa Buddhist temples and shrines. Monks and monasteries of the Ningmapa school also received some state funding. NGOs reported that the Government rarely granted permission to build a Hindu temple; however, the Government provided some scholarships for Sanskrit studies at Hindu-language universities in India. Followers of religions other than Buddhism and Hinduism generally were free to worship in private homes, but they could not erect religious buildings or congregate in large groups in public. There were no Hindu temples in Thimphu, despite the migration of many ethnic Nepalese to the capital city. However, the King has declared major Hindu festivals to be national holidays, and the royal family participates in them.
NGO representatives living outside of the country reported that Drukpa Kagyupa and Ningmapa Buddhist religious teaching is permitted in schools, but that other religious teaching is not. The Government contended that Buddhist teaching is permitted only in monastic schools, and that no religious teaching is permitted in other schools. Buddhist prayer is compulsory in all government-run schools, according to dissidents.
The Government requires all citizens, when in public places, to wear the traditional dress of the Buddhist majority, but it only strictly enforced this law for visits to Buddhist religious buildings, monasteries, government offices, schools, and when attending official functions and public ceremonies. Some citizens commented that enforcement of this law was arbitrary and sporadic.
Restrictions on Religious FreedomDissidents claimed that the Government prohibits religious conversions. Foreign missionaries were not permitted to proselytize, but international Christian relief organizations and Jesuit priests were active in education and humanitarian activities. An NGO has reported that some Christians were afraid to worship openly for fear of discrimination; moreover, senior Christian church officials reportedly are denied entry visas and, consequently, cannot confirm new priests.
Dissidents alleged that the Government restricted the import of printed religious matter; only Buddhist religious texts were allowed to enter the country.
Certain high levelcivil servants, regardless of religion, are required to take an oath of allegiance to the King, the country, and the people. The oath does not have religious content, but a Buddhist lama administers it. Dissidents alleged that applicants for Government services were asked their religion before the services were rendered.
Abuses of Religious FreedomEthnic Nepalese were subject to discrimination by the authorities in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when many were forcibly expelled (although others may have left voluntarily). The root causes of this official discrimination and the expulsions were cultural, economic, and political; however, to the degree that their Hinduism identified them as members of the ethnic Nepalese minority, religion may have been a secondary factor. The Government contended that many of those expelled in 1991 were illegal immigrants with no right to citizenship or residency, and others had "voluntarily emigrated." More than 100,000 ethnic Nepalese continued to live in refugee camps in eastern Nepaland were seeking to return to their homes. An estimated 15,000 more resided outside of the camps in the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal.
On June 18, 2003, the Government announced the results of the categorization of refugees of the first verified camp and its willingness to begin repatriating "genuine Bhutanese" citizens. The first category, "bona fide Bhutanese," who were evicted forcibly, comprised 2.4 percent of the total and can immediately return to the country with full rights as citizens; however, during the period covered by this report, none returned. The second category, "voluntary emigrants," comprised 70.5 percent and will be allowed to return but must apply for citizenship, a process that could take up to 2 years; however, at this juncture, none have returned to the country and applied for citizenship. The third category, "non-nationals," comprised 24.2 percent and will not be allowed to return to the country. The fourth category, "criminals," reportedly will be allowed to return if they agree to face criminal charges in the judicial system.
The Government resettled Buddhist citizens from other parts of the country on land in the south vacated by the expelled ethnic Nepalese 13 years ago. Human rights groups maintained that this action prejudices any possibility for land restoration for returning refugees. The Government maintained that this was not its first resettlement program, and that ethnic Nepalese citizens from the south sometimes were resettled in other parts of the country.
A religious freedom web site alleged that on April 11, following Easter Sunday services, police raided three Protestant house churches in Sarpang district in the southern part of the country. There were no arrests; however, church members were warned to stop meeting and told that the government viewed their meetings as "terrorist activities." The Government denied these reports as totally false.
There were no reports of religious detainees or prisoners.
Forced Religious ConversionThere were no reports of forced religious conversion, including of minor U.S. citizens who had been abducted or illegally removed from the United States, or of the refusal to allow such citizens to be returned to the United States.
Abuses by Terrorist OrganizationsThere were no reported abuses targeted at specific religions by terrorist organizations during the period covered by this report.
Section III. Societal Attitudes
Governmental discrimination against ethnic Nepalese in the late 1980s and early 1990s arose in part from a desire to preserve the country's Buddhist culture against the influence of a growing population of ethnic Nepalese with different cultural and religious traditions; it also was a response to increased political agitation by the ethnic Nepalese community. These preoccupations on the part of the Government and many Buddhists still were present during the reporting period. They were reflected in official and societal efforts to impose the dress and cultural norms of the Ngalop ethnic group on all citizens. While there were no reports of the repetition of the excesses of the late 1980s and early 1990s, societal and governmental pressure for conformity with Drukpa Kagyupa norms was prevalent. Societal prejudices against this group continue as has the Government's policy on forced retirement of refugee family members in government service and the resettlement of Buddhists on land vacated by expelled ethnic Hindu Nepalese in the south. Ethnic Nepalese with family members in the refugee camps also complained that they were unable to obtain new government-issued national identity cards.
Some of the country's few Christians, mostly ethnic Nepalese living in the south, claimed that they were harassed and discriminated against by the Government, local authorities, and non-Christian citizens. A religious freedom web site published unconfirmed reports that Christians were harassed by police during private worship at Easter and were told to discontinue any religious activities; however, the Government denied these reports. Some NGOs reported increased intimidation by the Government of persons who do not look like Bhutanese Buddhists. Such actions reportedly included stopping persons at designated checkpoints and asking for their identity documents. The Government claimed the identity checks were part of an effort to control illegal border crossings and United Liberation Front of Assam camps that were reportedly based in the southern part of the country in 2003. However, in December 2003, the Government destroyed these camps during a military offensive.
There have been some attempts to promote interfaith understanding. There were regular exchanges between monks of the two schools of Buddhism represented in the country. The King's example of making Hindu festivals official holidays and observing them also had a positive effect on citizens' attitudes.
Section IV. U.S. Government Policy
There are no formal diplomatic relations between the United States and Bhutan. Informal contacts between the two governments took place frequently. During these exchanges, governmental discrimination against the ethnic Nepalese minority was discussed.
In January anEmbassy officer from New Delhi and State Department officials discussed religious freedom in the context of the refugee issue and the draft Constitution in Thimphu. In March the U.S. Ambassador to India and an Embassy officer traveled to the country and discussed religious freedom, the draft Constitution, and the refugee issue with the King and other senior members of the Government. The U.S. Government has also worked to promote religious freedom and other democratic values by sponsoring several Bhutanese citizens to the United States on International Visitors Programs, which were structured to convey the importance of democratic and religious freedoms.
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